There are two factors that influence the life span of bed bugs. First, they must have a host in order to reproduce. Without a host, these bugs will not have enough food to survive. Another factor that affects the life span of bed bugs is the habitat they live in. If they live in a small space, they will have less ground to cover. Also, the temperature of their habitat is a factor.
If they cannot find a host, they will migrate to another place. Infested rooms can rapidly spread and result in an infestation. Bedbugs do not like moisture, so they prefer dry environments. They also are easily killed by natural predators such as cockroaches, ants, spiders, and lizards.
Adult bed bugs are oval-shaped, wingless, and about 1/5 of an inch long. They have well-developed antennae and small compound eyes. Their pronotum is covered in numerous small hairs. Immatures are smaller than adults (about one-eighth of an inch), have a thinner outer skeleton, and are yellowish-white in color.
Adult bed bugs can survive for weeks or months without a host. However, they need a host to reproduce. Without a host, they will stop breeding and will stop making eggs. Additionally, nymphs require a blood meal in order to molt. Thus, bed bugs that survive without a host will not be able to lay eggs.